Criminal Law Glossary

Real Estate Law Glossary

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There are currently 19 names in this directory beginning with the letter A.
Aboriginal People
Formerly used to describe the Indigenous people of Canada. Its use is now considered uncivil.

Absolute Discharge
When a person is found guilty or pleads guilty but the judge decides not to sentence them. The person has no criminal record.

Access Period
The time period when a youth record is open, which means it exists and has not been sealed or destroyed.

The claim that a person has committed a crime

Someone who is suspected of or has been charged with committing a crime.

When the court finds the accused not guilty of committing the crime. The accused is free to go.

A law passed by the federal parliament or provincial legislature.

A stop or delay in a court proceeding, usually to reschedule the hearing to another day.

When a witness promises to tell the truth in court without reference to religion.

Age of Consent
The age at which someone can legally consent to sexual activity. The age of consent is 16 (except for young people who are close in age or married).

A formal accusation of wrongdoing against someone that is not yet proven to be true.

To say something that has not yet been proven to be true.

Something that has not yet been proven to be true.

Alternative Measure
Instead of going to court, police or Crown might provide an accused charged with a less serious crime an opportunity to accept personal responsibility for their behaviour by agreeing to make amends to the victim and the community. For example, an apology and/or compensation for the loss or damage.

Anonymous / Anonymously
Without giving your name or indicating who you are.

When either the accused or their defence counsel (lawyer) or Crown counsel ask a higher court to review the decision of a lower court because they believe there has been a serious error.

Appearance Notice
An official notice telling an accused person they must appear in court at a specific time and place to respond to a criminal charge. If the accused does not come to court when the document requires, a warrant may be issued for their arrest and they could be charged with another offence (failing to appear). An accused may receive an appearance notice if the crime is less serious (such as theft under $5000). Usually a police officer gives the accused the appearance notice.

A court hearing where the accused or their defence counsel (lawyer) tells the court if the accused will plead guilty or not guilty. If the accused person pleads not guilty a trial date will be set. If the accused pleads guilty the case will not go to trial and the accused will be sentenced by the court. (Also see Consent Arraignment.)

A part of the lawyer training and licensing process where a law school graduate gets practical experience by working in a legal setting.